Center for the Promotion of Mental Health in Juvenile Justice

Selected Publications


Prevalence of mental health and substance
use disorder among justice-involved youth

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L., Lucas, C., Fisher, P., & Santos, L. (2002). The Voice DISC-IV with incarcerated male youths: Prevalence of disorder. The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(3), 314–321. PMID:11886026. Available online at

Wasserman, G.A., Jensen, P., Ko, S.J., Cocozza, J., Trupin, E., Angold, A., Cauffman, E., & Grisso, T. (2003). Mental health assessments in juvenile justice: Report on the Consensus Conference. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 752–761. PMID: 12819434. Available online at

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Ko, S.K., Katz, L.M., Cauffman, E., Haxton, W., & Lucas, C.P. (2004). Screening for emergent risk and service needs among incarcerated youth: Comparing MAYSI-2 and Voice DISC-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 629–639. Available online at

Ko, S.K., Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., & Katz, L.M. (2004). Contribution of parent report to Voice DISC-IV diagnosis among incarcerated youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(7), 868–877. PMID:15100570. Available online at

Vilhauer, J.S., McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A., & Wahl, R. (2004). Probation officers’ mental health knowledge and practices. Perspectives, 28(3), 28–32.

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Ko, S., Katz, L., & Carpenter, J. (2005). Gender differences in psychiatric disorder for youths in juvenile probations. American Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 131–137. PMID:15623873. PMCID: PMC1449865. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2003.024737

Wasserman, G.A., Vilhauer, J., McReynolds, L.S., Shoai, R., & John, R. (2005). Mental health screening in the juvenile justice system: A comparison between the Voice-DISC-IV and the MAYSI-2. Journal for Juvenile Justice and Detention Services, 19(1&2), 7–17.

Wasserman, G.A. (2005). Clarifying mental health screening and assessment in juvenile justice: Emergent risk and mental health service need. Inside Justice, 4(1), 10–11.

Hayes, M., McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A., & Haxton, W. (2006). Comparison of two self-administered formats of the MAYSI-2: Computerized voice vs. paper and pencil. Assessment, 12(4), 395–403.

Wasserman, G.A., & McReynolds, L.S. (2006). Suicide risk in juvenile probation intake. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 36(2), 239–249. doi: 10.1521/suli.2006.36.2.239

McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A., Fisher, P., & Lucas, C.P. (2007). Diagnostic screening with incarcerated youth: Comparing the DPS and Voice DISC. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(6), 830–845. PMID:15100570. doi: 10.1177/0093854807299918

McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman G.A., DeComo, R.E., John, R., Keating, J.M., & Nolen, S. (2008). Psychiatric disorder in a juvenile assessment center. Crime and Delinquency, 54(2), 313–334. doi: 10.1177/0011128707301629

Nolen, S., McReynolds, L.S., DeComo, R.E., John, R., Keating, J.M., & Wasserman, G.A. (2008). Lifetime suicide attempts among juvenile assessment center youth. Archives of Suicide Research, 12(2), 1–13. PMID:18340593. doi: 10.1080/13811110701857087

McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A., & John, R. (2008). Risk for disciplinary infractions among incarcerated male youths: Influence of psychiatric disorder. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(9), 1174–1185. doi: 10.1177/0093854808319936

Wasserman, G.A., Young, K., McReynolds, L.S., Keating, J., Fisher, P., Huo, Y., & Turner, J.B. (2010). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorder: Patterns of symptoms in youth classified as delinquents and persons in need of supervision. Report on Emotional and Behavioral Disorder in Youth, 10(1), 3–10.

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Schwalbe, C.S., Keating, J.M., & Jones, S.A. (2010). Psychiatric disorder, comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in juvenile justice youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(12), 1361–1376. doi: 10.1177/0093854810382751

Wasserman, G.A., & McReynolds, L.S. (2011). Contributors to traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in juvenile justice youths. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(4), 422–429. PMID:21800364. doi: 10.1002/jts.20664

McReynolds, L.S., & Wasserman, G.A. (2011). Self-injury in incarcerated girls: Contributions of mental health and traumatic experiences. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(6), 752–755. PMID:22113950. doi: 10.1002/jts.20699

Lyons, C., Wasserman, G.A., Olfson, M., McReynolds, L.S., Musabegovic, H., & Keating, J.M. (2013). Psychotropic medication patterns among incarcerated youth. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 40(2), 58–68. PMID: 22001969. doi: 10.1007/s10488-011-0378-4

Leenarts, L.E.W., McReynolds, L.S., Vermeiren, R.R.J.M., Doreleijers, T.A.H., & Wasserman, G.A. (2013). Associations between trauma history and juvenile sexual offending. Journal of Trauma and Treatment, S4, 002. doi:10.4172/2167-1222.S4-002

Elkington, K., Wasserman, G.A., Belmonte, K., Benavides, J., Mellins, C.A., & Donenberg, G. (2015). An exploration of family and juvenile justice systems to reduce youth HIV/STI risk. Journal for Research on Adolescence, 25(4), 700-716. PMID: 26539022.

Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L.S., & Wasserman, G.A. (2015). Comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder in adolescents: Offending, trauma, suicide attempt, and clinical characteristics. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 42(8), 840–855. doi: 10.1177/0093854814560766 Available online as

McReynolds, L.S., Ozbardakci, E.V., & Wasserman, G.A. (in review). Contributors to nonsuicidal self-injury in incarcerated youths.

McReynolds, L.S., Keyes, K., Fisher, P., Hasin, D., & Wasserman, G.A. (in preparation). Impact of proposed DSM changes to alcohol and cannabis use disorders in a national sample of justice youths.

Contribution of disorder to recidivism

McReynolds, L.S., Schwalbe, C., & Wasserman, G.A. (2010). Contribution of psychiatric disorder to juvenile recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(2), 204–216. doi: 10.1177/0093854809354961

Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L.S., McMillan, C., & Wasserman, G.A. (2013). The influence of mental health disorders on severity of re-offending in juveniles. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(3), 289–301. doi:10.1177/0093854812459639

Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L.S., & Wasserman, G.A. (2013). The influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(12), 1368–1382. doi: 10.1177/0093854813488106

Hoeve, M., McReynolds, L.S., & Wasserman, G.A. (2013). Service referral for juvenile justice youths: Associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41(3), 379–389. PMID:23397231. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0472-x

Evans-Cuellar, A., Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Ko, S.J., & Katz, L.M. (2006). Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(1), 197–214. PMID:16465707. doi: 10.1002/pam.20162

Systems-level interventions to promote behavioral health
service linkage for community youth in juvenile justice settings

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Whited, A.L., Keating, J.M., Musabegovic, H., & Huo, Y. (2008). Juvenile probation officers’ mental health decision making. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 35, 410–422. PMID:18642071. doi: 10.1007/s10488-008-0183-x

Wasserman, G.A., McReynolds, L.S., Whited, A.L., Keating, J.M., Musabegovic, H., & Huo, Y. (2009). Evaluating Project Connect: Improving juvenile probationers’ mental health and substance use service access. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 36, 393–405. PMID: 19582568. doi: 10.1007/s10488-009-0229-8

Identifying what works in promoting best practices for community
juvenile justice agencies and their behavioral health partners

Knight, D.K., Belenko, S., Wiley, T., Robertson, A.A., Arrigona, N., Dennis, M., Bartkowski, J.P., McReynolds, L.S., Becan, J.E., Knudsen, H.K., Wasserman, G.A., Rose, E., DiClemente, R., Leukefeld, C., & the JJ-TRIALS Cooperative. (2016). Juvenile Justice—Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): A cluster randomized trial targeting system-wide improvement in substance use services. Implementation Science. 11(57). doi: 10.1186/s13012-016-0423-5

Belenko, S., Knight, D., Wasserman, G., Dennis, M., Wiley, T., Taxman, F., Oser, C., Dembo, R., Robertson, A., & Sales J. (in review). The Juvenile Justice Behavioral Health Services Cascade: A new framework for measuring unmet substance use treatment services needs among adolescent offenders.